Function analysis of automatic lathe equipment
Automatic locomotive lathes As one of the oldest metal removers, engine lathes have many useful and very desirable properties. Today, these lathes are mainly used in small-scale production rather than mass-produced small shops.
Engine lathes have been replaced by a variety of automatic lathes, including automatic single-point tools that remove metal to the greatest extent in today’s production sites, and the use of finishing foam tools that are comparable to today’s fastest processing equipment on site.
Engine lathe tolerances mainly depend on the skill of the operator. Design engineers should understand the use of tolerances in experimental parts made by skilled operators on engine lathes. Economic tolerances must be used when redesigning experimental parts for production.
Turret lathe production machinery must now be evaluated more than ever. This standard is used to establish the production qualification of a specific method, and the turret lathe is highly praised.
For small designs such as 100 or 200 parts, it is most economical to use a turret lathe. The designer should minimize operations to achieve the best possible tolerances of the turret lathe.
Automatic screw machines Generally speaking, automatic screw machines are divided into several categories. Single-spindle automatic, multi-spindle automatic, automatic chuck machine. The automatic screw machine was originally designed for the rapid and automated production of screws and similar threaded parts. Now it has gone far beyond this narrow field. Today it plays an important role in the mass production of various precision parts.
Automatic screw machine. Once the economical minimum batch size is calculated and the appropriate machine is selected for these quantities, the cost of processing parts can be reduced.
The smallest tolerance that an automatic tracking lathe can withstand is not necessarily the most economical tolerance, because the surface roughness is highly dependent on the material, tool, feed, and speed used.
In some cases, continuous production of one cut maintains a tolerance of 0.05 mm. For some parts, the width of the groove can be kept at 0.125 mm. The hole and single point finish can be up to 0.0125 mm. For high-production operations that require maximum output, a minimum tolerance of 0.125 mm in diameter and rotation length is economical.
Automatically complete the multi-step processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to a specific program. Batches of the same workpiece can be automatically loaded and unloaded and processed repeatedly, which is suitable for mass and mass production. Vertical
The spindle is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is fixed on the horizontal turntable, and the tool post moves above the beam or column. Suitable for large and heavy lathes that are difficult to install. There are two main categories, single-column and double-column.
At the same time of turning, the tool holder reciprocates periodically in the radial direction to form the tooth surface of the forklift milling cutter and hob. Usually, when using excavator attachments, a small grinding wheel driven by another motor is used to shovel the tooth surface.
Special lathe A lathe that processes a specific surface of a specific type of workpiece. For example, crankshaft lathes, camshaft lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, ingot lathes, etc.
Mainly used for turning, but special parts and accessories can also be used for boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding and other processing. It has the characteristics of “one machine with multiple functions” and is suitable for the maintenance work of engineering vehicles, ships or mobile maintenance stations.
The left edge of the saddle lathe at the front of the headbox is recessed to accommodate large diameter parts. The shape of the lathe is high and two heads, the center is low, and the shape is like a saddle, so it is called a saddle lathe. Saddle lathes are suitable for machining parts with large radial dimensions and small axial dimensions. It is suitable for turning of external circle, internal hole, end face, slotting and metric, inch, modulus and cross-section screws. It can also be used for drilling, boring and reamer processing. Especially suitable for single batch production enterprises. The saddle lathe can process large diameter workpieces with saddle grooves. The machine tool guide rail is hardened and finely ground, and the operation is simple and reliable. The lathe has the characteristics of high output, high speed, strong rigidity, high precision and low noise.
Multi-tool semi-automatic lathes are classified into single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal, and vertical. The single-axis horizontal layout is similar to that of a traditional lathe. However, there are two sets of tool holders attached to the front, back or top and bottom of the spindle for processing discs, rings and shaft-shaped workpieces. Its productivity is 3 to 5 times that of traditional lathes. Dota
There are turrets or return turrets, which can accommodate a variety of tools. With one workpiece fixture, different tools can be used to complete different processes suitable for mass production.