Robots enter a high-end development period, and mobile phones will be replaced by small robots

“Robot is the crown of the manufacturing industry, and its application and manufacturing are an important symbol for measuring a country’s high-end manufacturing.” On December 11, 2020, at the 2020 National Robot Development Forum jointly sponsored by the China Society of Automation and Shenzhen Science and Technology Association At the meeting, Wang Yaonan, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and dean of the School of Electrical and Information Engineering of Hunan University, believes that “the development of robotics technology and industry has become a major strategic need in my country.”

Entering the high-end development period

Why are countries competing to develop robots? Wang Yaonan believes that the reason lies in the needs of national livelihood projects. Robots can assist people to complete various dangerous and complex tasks, and play an important role in large-scale projects such as bridge construction and maintenance, ocean development, and space exploration.

Wang Yaonan pointed out that in the 20th century, robots entered the stage of intelligent development. After human beings entered the modern industrial society, robots were mainly used in the industrial field, especially in Japan, the United States, Germany and other countries after World War II. In the case of labor shortages, industrial robots have more application space, so in the 1960s, industrial robots obtained Develop.

Today’s robots are ubiquitous and play an important role in manufacturing, logistics, medical and other fields. “From the perspective of platform construction, robots are divided into industrial robots, flying robots, mobile robots, space robots, marine robots, etc. These robots are widely used in the field of intelligent manufacturing.” Wang Yaonan said.

“In the past ten years, China’s robot development can be divided into two stages. The first five years are the industrial development period, and now it has entered the high-end development period.” Wang Yaonan predicted.

After the new crown pneumonia epidemic, medical robots have become one of the main directions of intelligent robots. “In the future, robots will also play a major role in the construction of major national engineering infrastructure, especially in the construction of new infrastructure.” Wang Yaonan said, such as the scientific expedition on Mount Everest, in bad weather, robots can be used to assist in the future visit.

With four core systems

Wang Yaonan believes that a robot is a device that can automatically perform and operate operations. It has sensing functions, planning functions, decision-making functions, and control functions. It can complete tasks that are difficult or repetitive for humans, and can be used in boring, dangerous and harsh environments. .

So how many kinds of robots are there? Wang Yaonan pointed out that from different perspectives, the types of robots are also different. From the perspective of use, it can be divided into industrial robots, agricultural robots, medical robots, inspection robots, etc.; from the perspective of space, there are industrial robots, underwater robots, space robots, land robots, etc.

“It is not difficult to see that robotics is a multi-disciplinary science, involving artificial intelligence, mechanical engineering, control science, computers, electronics, materials and other fields.” Wang Yaonan said, “But no matter how complex a robot is, in fact, It is an automated system with four core parts: perception system, decision-making system, control system and complex ontology structure system.”

In addition, Wang Yaonan believes that intelligent perception, intelligent collaborative planning, and intelligent precise control are the core technologies of intelligent robots. In terms of intelligent perception, how to design a complete robot visual perception and how to create a micro-sensing and highly intelligent sensing and control integrated chip are issues to be considered in the future; in terms of control technology, flexible control, intelligent control, collaboration Control is three research hotspots; to achieve precise control, the robot needs a pair of dexterous hands. “Robot work is a key technology to complete complex tasks and create dexterous robotic hands.” Wang Yaonan said.

Small robots may become standard in the future

“Everyone has a mobile phone now, and in the future everyone will bring a small robot. To meet this demand, a robot needs to have five elements.” Wang Yaonan said, that is, it has the function of perception, planning, decision-making, movement and learning.

In Wang Yaonan’s view, “in the future, a real robot must have the functions of emotional interaction, human-machine collaboration, and the ability to learn, semantic analysis, etc., before it can truly become an intelligent service robot.”

To achieve this goal, we have a lot of work to do, such as adding perception, memory, learning, and decision-making capabilities to the robot’s system, so that the robot has an intelligent and autonomous network control system.

“Artificial intelligence is the key to the development of intelligent robots. The three core technologies of artificial intelligence, perception technology, cognitive technology, and behavior control technology are the main technologies for the development of intelligent robots.” Wang Yaonan said.

Wang Yaonan pointed out that there are several key points in how artificial intelligence and robots are organically combined. At the perception level, it mainly involves language recognition and physical recognition; at the cognitive level, it mainly involves semantic understanding, emotional analysis, and multimodal interaction at the decision-making level. etc. At the executive level, it mainly involves gait control, gait recognition and interaction.

“The development of robots in the future must be networked, autonomous, collaborative, and dexterous. At the same time, robots must have a good development plan, an innovative environment, and the standards and technologies of the next generation of robots.” Wang Yaonan said, the most critical There must also be industrial talents, which need to integrate technicians, engineers and scientists.

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